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  • Autor
    • Benítez-Mateos, Ana
    • Nidetzky, Bernd
    • Bolivar, Juan Manuel
    • Lòpez-Gallego, Fernando
  • TitelSingle-Particle Studies to Advance the Characterization of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts
  • Datei
  • DOI10.1002/cctc.201701590
  • Erschienen inChemCatChem
  • Band10
  • Erscheinungsjahr2018
  • Heft4
  • Seiten654-665
  • LicenceCC BY 4.0
  • ISSN1867-3899
  • ZugriffsrechteCC-BY
  • Download Statistik13
  • Peer ReviewJa
  • AbstractImmobilized enzymes have been widely exploited because they work as heterogeneous biocatalysts, allowing their recov- ery and reutilization and easing the downstream processing once the chemical reactions are completed. Unfortunately, we suffer a lack of analytical methods to characterize those heter- ogeneous biocatalysts at microscopic and molecular levels with spatio-temporal resolution, which limits their design and optimization. Single-particle studies are vital to optimize the performance of immobilized enzymes in micro/nanoscopic environments. In this Concept article, we review different ana- lytical techniques that address single-particle studies to image the spatial distribution of the enzymes across the solid surfa- ces, the sub-particle substrate diffusion, the structural integrity and mobility of the immobilized enzymes inside the solid parti- cles, and the pH and O2 internal gradients. From our view, such sub-particle information elicited from single-particle anal- ysis is paramount for the design and fabrication of optimal heterogeneous biocatalyst.